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From the Editor, 2024

Dear Readers,

I am pleased to present volume 14 of Young Scientist, a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the publication of original research conducted by high school students.

This year’s volume includes 39 articles published in print and online. Sixteen of these authors conducted research on Vanderbilt’s campus through the School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt, while the remaining authors participated in research across the United States and internationally. Not all of these articles could be included in the print edition of the journal; I highly encourage you all to visit the Young Scientist website in order to view the full collection. Young Scientist strives to publish articles across a broad range of STEM research, including environmental science, medicine, developmental psychology, engineering, chemistry, biology, and the application of machine learning to a diverse array of topics. Each article represents the individual research of a high school student, and it’s inspiring to see what they’ve accomplished.

As always, Young Scientist would not exist without the dedication of many graduate students, researchers, and faculty across Vanderbilt’s campus. First, I would like to extend special thanks to the expert referees who carefully reviewed each article at least twice, ensuring the scientific quality of each article. Next, I want to recognize the faculty, research staff, graduate students, and teachers who volunteered their time to mentor these young researchers and guide them along the path to becoming future scientists, engineers, and doctors.  Finally, I am grateful to the patrons who have generously supported Young Scientist and the Center for Science Outreach at Vanderbilt.

I hope that you enjoy this volume of Young Scientist and are inspired by the remarkable achievements of the students who contributed their work. To learn more about the journal or to participate in its production as an author, mentor, reviewer, or sponsor, please visit

Lauren E. Buchanan, Ph.D.