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Classroom Response System (“Clickers”) Bibliography

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by Derek Bruff, Director, Vanderbilt Center for Teaching

Below is a bibliography of articles on classroom response systems (CRSs). Most of the articles present some form of research on the effectiveness or impact of CRSs on student learning. The first group of articles are not discipline-specific; the later articles are grouped by discipline. For more on CRSs, visit our CRS Teaching Guide.

Note that some of the links below may not work off of Vanderbilt’s campus. If you have trouble following a link or if you know of an appropriate article to add to this bibliography, please contact Derek Bruff.

[295 entries as of March 25, 2014.]

General Audience


  • Banks, D. A. (Ed.). (2006). Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
  • Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with classroom response systems: Creating active learning environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [More Information]
  • Case, S.M., & Swanson, D.B. (2002). Constructing written test questions for the basic and clinical sciences. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners.
  • Duncan, D. (2005). Clickers in the classroom: How to enhance science teaching using classroom response systems. San Francisco: Pearson Education.

Introductions to Clickers

Literature Reviews

Research on Student Perceptions

Vendor Comparisons & Adoption Issues

Mobile Devices (Cell Phones, etc.)

Miscellaneous (but Interesting!) Articles

Discipline-Specific Audience

Biological Sciences

Business, Accounting, and Management



Computer Science

Earth & Environmental Science





Health Professions (Other than Nursing)


Human & Organizational Development

Interdisciplinary Areas

Language Instruction


Library Science & Information Literacy

Mathematics & Statistics

See also the bibliography available at Project Math QUEST’s resource page.



Physics and Astronomy

Political Science